The Indian Medical Council ACT, 1956 (102 of 1956)
30th December, 1956
(As amended by the Indian Medical Council (Amendment) Acts, 1964, 1993 & 2001)
AN ACT TO PROVIDE FOR THE RECONSTITUTION OF THE MEDICAL Council OF INDIA AND THE MAINTENANCE OF A MEDICAL REGISTER FOR INDIA AND FOR MATTERS CONNECTED THEREWITH.
Be it enacted by Parliament in the seventh year of the Republic of India as follows:-
1. SHORT TITLE, EXTENT & COMMENCEMENT
1 This Act may be called the Indian Medical Council Act, 1956.
2. It extends to the whole of India.
3. It shall come into force on such date as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint.
In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires:-
a. “approved institution” means a hospital, health centre or other such institution recognised by a university as an institution in which a person may undergo the training, if any, required by his course of study before the award of any medical qualification to him.
b. “Council” means the Medical Council of India constituted under this Act.
c. ["deleted" by Indian Medical Council (Amendment) Act, 1964.]
d. “Indian Medical Register” means the medical register maintained by the Council.
e. “Medical Institution” means any institution, within or without India, which grants degrees, diplomas or licences in medicine.
f. “medicine” means modern scientific medicine in all its branches and includes surgery and obstetrics, but does not include veterinary medicine and surgery;
g. “Prescribed” means prescribed by regulations.
h. “recognised medical qualification” means any of the medical qualifications included in the Schedules.
i. “regulation” means a regulation made under section 33;
j. “State Medical Council” means a medical Council constituted under any law for the time being in force in any State regulating the registration of practitioners of medicine.
k. “State Medical Register” means a register maintained under any law for the time being in force in any State regulating the registration of practitioners of medicine.
l. “University” means any University in India established by law and having a medical faculty.
3. CONSTITUTION & COMPOSITION OF THE COUNCIL
1. The Central Government shall cause to be constituted a Council consisting of the following members, namely:-
a. One member from each State other than a Union Territory to be nominated by the Central Government in consultation with the State Government concerned.
b. One member from each University to be elected from amongst the members of the medical faculty of the University by members of the Senate of the University or in case the University has no Senate, by members of the Court.
c. One member from each State in which a State Medical Register is maintained, to be elected from amongst themselves by persons enrolled on such register who possess the medical qualifications included in the First or the Second Schedule or in Part II of the Third Schedule.
d. Seven members to be elected from amongst themselves by persons enrolled on any of the State Medical Registers who possess the medical qualifications included in Part I of the Third Schedule.
e. Eight members to be nominated by the Central Govt.
2. The President and Vice-President of the Council shall be elected by the members of the Council from amongst themselves.
3. No act done by the Council shall be questioned on the ground merely of the existence of any vacancy in, or any defect in the constitution of the Council.
4. MODE OF ELECTION
1. (a) An election under clause (b), clause (c) or clause (d) of sub-section (1) of section 3 shall be conducted by the Central Government in accordance with such rules as may be made by it in this behalf, and any rules so made may provide that pending the preparation of the Indian Medical Register in accordance with provisions of this Act, the members referred to in clause (d) of sub-section (1) of section 3 may be nominated by the Central Government instead of being elected as provided therein.
2. Where any dispute arises regarding any election to the Council, it shall be referred to the Central Government whose decision shall be final.
5. RESTRICTIONS ON NOMINATION AND MEMBERSHIP
1. No person shall be eligible for nomination under clause (a) of sub-section (1) of section 3 unless he possesses any of the medical qualifications included in the First and Second Schedules, resides in the State concerned, and where a State Medical Register is maintained in that State, is enrolled on that Register.
2. No person may at the same time serve as a member in more than one capacity.
6. INCORPORATION OF THE COUNCIL
The Council so constituted shall be a body corporate by the name of the Medical Council of India,
having perpetual succession and a common seal, with power to acquire and hold property, both movable and immovable, and to contract and shall by the said name sue and be sued.
7. TERM OF OFFICE OF PRESIDENT, VICE-PRESIDENT AND MEMBERS
1. The President or Vice-President of the Council shall hold office for a term not exceeding five years and not extending beyond the expiry of his term as member of the Council.
2. Subject to the provisions of this section, a member shall hold office for a term of five years from the date of his nomination or election or until his successor shall have been duly nominated or elected, whichever is longer.
3. An elected or nominated member shall be deemed to have vacated his seat if he is absent without excuse, sufficient in the opinion of the Council from three consecutive ordinary meetings of the Council, or in the case of a member elected under clause (b) of sub-section (1) of section 3, if he ceases to be a member of the medical faculty of the university concerned, or in the case of a member elected under clause (c) or clause (d) of that sub-section, if he ceases to be a person enrolled on the State Medical Register concerned.
4. A casual vacancy in the Council shall be filled by nomination or election, as the case may be, and the person nominated or elected to fill the vacancy shall hold office only for the remainder of the term for which the member whose place he takes was nominated or elected.
5. Members of the Council shall be eligible for re-nomination or re-election.
6. Where the said term of five years is about to expire in respect of any member, a successor may be nominated or elected at any time within three months before the said term expires but he shall not assume office until the said term has expired.
8. MEETINGS OF THE Council
1. The Council shall meet at least once in each year at such time and place as may be appointed by the Council.
2. Unless otherwise provided by regulations fifteen members of the Council shall form a quorum, and all the acts of the Council shall be decided by a majority of the members present and voting.
9. OFFICERS, COMMITTEES AND SERVANTS OF THE Council
The Council Shall:
1. constitute from amongst its members an Executive Committee and such other committees for general or special purposes as the Council deems necessary to carry out the purposes of this Act.
2. appoint a Registrar who shall act as Secretary and who may also, if deemed expedient, act as Treasurer.
3. employ such other persons, as the Council deems necessary to carry out the purposes of this Act.
4. require and take from the Registrar, or from any other employee, such security for the due performance of his duties as the Council deems necessary and
5. With the previous sanction of the Central Government fix the remuneration and allowances to be paid to the President, Vice-President and members of the Council and determine the conditions of service of the employees of the Council.
10. THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE
1. The Executive Committee, hereinafter referred to as the Committee shall consist of the President and Vice-President, who shall be members ex-officio and not less than seven and not more than ten other members who shall be elected by the Council from amongst its members.
2. The President and Vice-President shall be the President and Vice-President respectively of the Committee.
3. In addition to the powers and duties conferred and imposed upon it by this Act, the Committee shall exercise and discharge such powers and duties as the Council may confer or impose upon it by any regulations which may be made in this behalf.
10A. PERMISSION FOR ESTABLISHMENT OF NEW MEDICAL College, NEW COURSE OF STUDY ETC.
1. Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act or any other law for the time being in force:-
1. no person shall establish a medical College ( or )
2. no medical College shall:-
1. open a new or higher course of study or training (including a postgraduate
course of study or training) which would enable a student of such course or
training to qualify himself for the award of any recognised medical
2. increase its admission capacity in any course of study or training (including a
postgraduate course of study or training), except with the previous
permission of the Central Government obtained in accordance with the
provisions of this section.
Explanation 1 – For the purposes of this section, “person” includes any
University or a trust but does not include the Central
Explanation 2 – For the purposes of this section “admission capacity” in relation
to any course of study or training (including postgraduate
course of study or training) in a medical College, means the
maximum number of students that may be fixed by the Council
from time to time for being admitted to such course or training.
1. Every person or medical College shall, for the purpose of obtaining permission
under sub-section (1), submit to the Central Government a scheme in accordance
with the provisions of clause (b) and the central Government shall refer the
scheme to the Council for its recommendations.
2. The Scheme referred to in clause (a) shall be in such form and contain such
particulars and be preferred in such manner and be accompanied with such fee as
may be prescribed.
3. On receipt of a scheme by the Council under sub-section (2) the Council may obtain such other particulars as may be considered necessary by it from the person or the medical College concerned, and thereafter, it may -
1. if the scheme is defective and does not contain any necessary particulars, give a
reasonable opportunity to the person or College concerned for making a written
representation and it shall be open to such person or medical College to rectify
the defects, if any, specified by the Council.
2. consider the scheme, having regard to the factors referred to in sub-section (7)
and submit the scheme together with its recommendations thereon to the Central
4. The Central Govt. may after considering the scheme and the recommendations of the Council under sub-section (3) and after obtaining, where necessary, such other particulars as may be considered necessary by it from the person or College concerned, and having regard to the factors referred to in sub-section (7), either approve (with such conditions, if any, as it may consider necessary ) or disapprove the scheme, and any such approval shall be a permission under sub-section (1):
Provided that no scheme shall be disapproved by the Central Government except after giving the person or College concerned a reasonable opportunity of being heard; Provided further that nothing in this sub section shall prevent any person or medical College whose scheme has not been approved by the Central Government to submit a fresh scheme and the provisions of this section shall apply to such scheme, as if such scheme has been submitted for the first time under sub-section (1).
5. Where, within a period of one year from the date of submission of the scheme to the Central Government under sub-section (1), no order passed by the Central Government has been communicated to the person or College submitting the scheme, such scheme shall be deemed to have been approved by the Central Government in the form in which it had been submitted, and accordingly, the permission of the Central Government required under sub-section (1) shall also be deemed to have been granted.
6. In computing the time-limit specified in sub-section (5), the time taken by the person or College concerned submitting the scheme, in furnishing any particulars called for by the Council, or by the Central Government, shall be excluded.
7. The Council, while making its recommendations under clause (b) of sub-section (3) and the Central Government, while passing an order, either approving or disapproving the scheme under sub-section (4), shall have due regard to the following factors, namely:-
1. whether the proposed medical College or the existing medical College seeking to open a new or higher course of study or training, would be in a position to offer the minimum standards of medical education as prescribed by the Council under section 19A or, as the case may be under section 20 in the case of postgraduate medical education.
2. whether the person seeking to establish a medical College or the existing medical College seeking to open a new or higher course of study or training or to increase it admission capacity has adequate financial resources;
3. whether necessary facilities in respect of staff, equipment, accommodation, training and other facilities to ensure proper functioning of the medical College or conducting the new course or study or training or accommodating the increased admission capacity, have been provided or would be provided within the time-limit specified in the scheme.
4. whether adequate hospital facilities, having regard to the number or students likely to attend such medical College or course of study or training or as a result of the increased admission capacity, have been provided or would be provided within the time-limit specified in the scheme;
5. whether any arrangement has been made or programme drawn to impart proper training to students likely to attend such medical College or course of study or training by persons having the recognised medical qualifications;
6. the requirement of manpower in the field of practice of medicine; and any other factors as may be prescribed.
7. Where the Central Government passes an order either approving or disapproving a scheme under this section, a copy of the order shall be communicated to the person or College concerned.
10B. NON-RECOGNITION OF MEDICAL QUALIFICATIONS IN CERTAIN CASES.
1. Where any medical College is established except with the previous permission of
the Central Government in accordance with the provisions of section 10A, no medical
qualification granted to any student of such medical College shall a recognised
medical qualification for the purposes of this Act.
2. Where any medical College opens a new or higher course of study or training
(including a postgraduate course of study or training) except with the previous
permission of the Central Government in accordance with the provisions of section
10A, no medical qualification granted to any student of such medical College on the
basis of such study or training shall be a recognised medical qualification for the
purposes of this Act.
3. Where any medical College increases its admission capacity in any course of study
or training except with the previous permission of the Central Government in
accordance with the provisions of section 10A, no medical qualification granted to
any student of such medical College on the basis of the increase in its admission
capacity shall be a recognised medical qualification for the purposes of this Act.
Explanation – For the purposes of this section, the criteria for identifying a student who has been granted a medical qualification on the basis of such increase in the admission capacity shall be such as may be prescribed.
10C. TIME FOR SEEKING PERMISSION FOR CERTAIN EXISTING MEDICAL CollegeS, ETC.
1. If, after, the 1st day of June, 1992 and on and before the commencement of the Indian Medical Council (Amendment) Act, 1993 any person has established a medical College or any medical College has opened a new or higher course of study or training or increased the admission capacity, such person or medical College, as the case may be, shall seek, within a period of one year from the commencement of the Indian Medical Council (Amendment) Act, 1993 the permission of the Central Government in accordance with the provisions of section 10A.
2. If any person or medical College, as the case may be fails to seek the permission under sub section (1) the provisions of section 10B shall apply, so far as may be as if, permission of the Central Government under section 10A has been refused;
11. RECOGNITION OF MEDICAL QUALIFICATION GRANTED BY UNIVERSITIES OR MEDICAL INSTITUTIONS IN INDIA.
1. The medical qualifications granted by any university or medical Institution in India which are included in the first Schedule shall be recognised medical qualifications for the purposes of this Act.
2. Any university or medical Institution in India which grants a medical qualification not included in the First Schedule may apply to the Central Govt., to have such qualification recognised, and the Central Government, after consulting the Council, may, by notification in the official Gazette, amend the First Schedule so as to include such qualification therein, and any such notification may also direct that an entry shall be made in the last column of the First Schedule against such medical qualification declaring that it shall be a recognised medical qualification only when granted after a specified date.
12. RECOGNITION OF MEDICAL QUALIFICATIONS GRANTED BY MEDICAL INSTITUTIONS IN COUNTRIES WITH WHICH THERE IS A SCHEME OF RECIPROCITY
1. The medical qualifications granted by medical institutions outside India which are included in the Second Schedule shall be recognised medical qualifications for the purposes of this Act.
2. The Council may enter into negotiations with the Authority in any country outside India which by the law of such country is entrusted with the maintenance of a register of medical practitioners, for the settling of a scheme of reciprocity for the recognition of medical qualifications and in pursuance of any such scheme, the Central Government may, by notification in the official Gazette, amend the Second Schedule so as to include therein the medical qualification which the Council has decided should be recognised and any such notification may also direct that an entry shall be made in the last column of the Second Schedule against such medical qualification declaring that it shall be a recognised medical qualification only when granted after a specified date.
3. The Central Government, after consultation with the Council, may, by notification in the Official Gazette, amend the Second Schedule by directing that an entry be made therein in respect of any medical qualification declaring that it shall be recognised medical qualification only when granted before a specified date.
4. Where the Council has refused to recommend any medical qualification which has been proposed for recognition by any Authority referred to in sub-section (2) and that Authority applies to the Central Government in this behalf, the Central Government, after considering such application and after obtaining from the Council a report, if any, as to the reasons for any such refusal, may by notification in the Official Gazette, amend the Second Schedule so as to include such qualification therein and the provisions of sub-section (2) shall apply to such notification.
13. RECOGNITION OF MEDICAL QUALIFICATION GRANTED BY CERTAIN MEDICAL INSTITUTIONS WHOSE QUALIFICATIONS ARE NOT INCLUDED IN THE FIRST OR SECOND SCHEDULE
1. The medical qualifications granted by medical institutions in India which are not included in the First Schedule and which are included in Part I of the Third Schedule shall also be recognised medical qualifications for the purposes of this Act.
2. The medical qualifications granted to a citizen of India:-
1. before the 15th day of August, 1947, by medical institutions in the territories now forming part of Pakistan, and
2. before the 1st day of April, 1937, by medical institutions in the territories now forming part of Burma, which are included in part 1 of the Third Schedule shall also be recognised medical qualifications for the purposes of this Act.
3. The medical qualifications granted by medical institutions outside India, before such date as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, specify which are included in Part IInd of the Third Schedule shall also be recognised medical qualifications for the purposes of this Act, but no person possessing any such qualification shall be entitled to enrolment on any State Medical Register unless he is a citizen of India and has undergone such practical training after obtaining that qualification as may be required by the rules or regulations in force in the country granting the qualification, or if he has not undergone any practical training in that country he has undergone such practical training as may be prescribed.
4. The Central Government, after consulting the Council, may, by notification in the Official Gazette, amend Part II of the Third Schedule so as to include therein any qualification granted by a medical institution outside India, which is not included in the Second Schedule.
Provided that after the commencement of the Indian Medical Council (Amendment) Act, 2001, no such amendment shall be made in Part II of the Third Schedule to include any primary medical qualification granted by any medical institution outside India:
Provided further that nothing contained in the first proviso shall apply to inclusion in Part II of the Third Schedule any primary medical qualification granted by any medical institution outside India to any person whose name is entered in the Indian Medical Register.
Explanation- For the purposes of this sub-section, “primary medical qualification” means any minimum qualification sufficient for enrolment on any State Medical Register or for entering the name in the Indian Medical Register.
(4A) A person who is a citizen of India and obtains medical qualification granted by any medical institution in any country outside India recognised for enrolment as medical practitioner in that country after such date as may be specified by the Central Government under sub-section (3), shall not be entitled to be enrolled on any Medical Register maintained by a State Medical Council or to have his name entered in the Indian Medical Register unless he qualified the screening test in India prescribed for such purpose and such foreign medical qualification after such person qualifies that said screening test shall be deemed to be the recognised medical qualification for the purposes of this Act for that person.
(4B) A person who is a citizen of India shall not, after such date as may be specified by the Central Government under sub-section (3), be eligible to get admission to obtain medical qualification granted by any medical institution in any foreign country without obtaining an eligibility certificate issued to him by the Council and in case any such person obtains such qualification without obtaining such eligibility certificate, he shall not be eligible to appear in the screening test referred to in sub-section (4A):Provided that an Indian citizen who has acquired the medical qualification from foreign medical institution or has obtained admission in foreign medical institution before the commencement of the Indian Medical Council (Amendment) Act, 2001 shall not be required to obtain eligibility certificate under this sub-section but, if he is qualified for admission to any medical course for recognised medical qualification in any medical institution in India, he shall be required to qualify only the screening test prescribed for enrolment on any State Medical Register or for entering his name in the Indian Medical Register.
(4C) Nothing contained in sub-sections (4A) and (4B) shall apply to the medical qualifications referred to in section 14 for the purposes of that section.
5. Any medical institution in India which is desirous of getting a medical qualification granted by it included in Part I of the Third Schedule may apply to the Central Government to have such qualification recognised and the Central Government, after consulting the Council, may by notification in the Official Gazette, amend Part I of the Third Schedule so as to include such qualification therein, and any such notification may also direct that an entry shall be made in the last column of Part-I of the Third Schedule against such medical qualification declaring that it shall be a recognised medical qualification only when granted after a specified date.
14. SPECIAL PROVISION IN CERTAIN CASES FOR RECOGNITION OF MEDICAL QUALIFICATIONS GRANTED BY MEDICAL INSTITUTIONS IN COUNTRIES WITH WHICH THERE IS NO SCHEME OF RECIPROCITY.
1. The Central Government after consultation with the Council, may, by notification in the Official Gazette, direct that medical qualifications granted by medical institutions in any country out-side India in respect of which a scheme of reciprocity for the recognition of medical qualifications is not in force, shall be recognised medical qualification for the purposes of this Act or shall be so only when granted after a specified date:
Provided that medical practice by persons possessing such qualifications: -
1. shall be permitted only if such persons are enrolled as medical practitioners in accordance with the law regulating the registration of medical practitioners for the time being in force in that country;
2. shall be limited to the institution to which they are attached for the time being for the purposes of teaching, research or charitable work ; and
3. shall be limited to the period specified in this behalf by the Central Government by general or special order.
2. In respect of any such medical qualification the Central Government, after consultation with the Council may, by notification in the Official Gazette direct that it shall be a recognised medical qualification only when granted before a specified date.
15. RIGHT OF PERSONS POSSESSING QUALIFICATIONS IN THE SCHEDULES TO BE ENROLLED.
1. Subject to the other provisions contained in this Act, the medical qualifications included in the Schedules shall be sufficient qualification for enrolment on any State Medical Register.
Save as provided in section 25, no person other than a medical practitioner enrolled on a State Medical Register:-
1. shall hold office as physician or surgeon or any other office (by whatever designation called) in Government or in any institution maintained by a local or other authority;
2. shall practice medicine in any State;
3. shall be entitled to sign or authenticate a medical or fitness certificate or any other certificate required by any law to be signed or authenticated by a duly qualified medical practitioner:
4. shall be entitled to give evidence at any inquest or in any court of law as an expert under section 45 of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 on any matter relating to medicine.
3. Any person who acts in contravention of any provision of sub-section (2) shall be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both;
16. POWER TO REQUIRE INFORMATION AS TO COURSES OF STUDY AND EXAMINATIONS
Every University or medical institution in India which grants a recognised medical qualification shall furnish such information as the Council may, from time to time, require as to the courses of study and examinations to be undergone in order to obtain such qualification, as to the ages at which such courses of study and examinations are required to be undergone and such qualification is conferred and generally as to the requisites for obtaining such qualification.
17. INSPECTION OF EXAMINATIONS
1. The Committee shall appoint such number of medical inspectors as it may deem requisite to inspect any medical institution, College, hospital or other institution where medical education is given, or to attend any examination held by any University or medical institution for the propose of recommending to the Central Government recognition of medical qualifications granted by the University or medical institution.
2. The medical inspectors shall not interfere with the conduct of any training or examination, but shall report to the committee on the adequacy of the standards of medical education including staff, equipment, accommodation, training facilities prescribed for giving medical education or on the sufficiency of every examination which they attend.
3. The Committee shall forward a copy of any such report to the university or medical institution concerned and shall also forward a copy with the remarks of the University or institution thereon, to the Central Government.
18. VISITORS AT EXAMINATIONS
1. The Council may appoint such number of visitors as it may deem requisite to inspect any medical institution, College, hospital or other institution where medical education is given, or to attend any examination held by any University or medical institution for the purpose of granting recognised medical qualifications.
2. Any person, whether he is a member of the Council or not may be appointed as a visitor under this section but a person who is appointed as an inspector under section 17 for any inspection or examination shall not be appointed as a visitor for the same inspection or examination.
3. The visitors shall not interfere with the conduct of any training or examination but shall report to the President of the Council on the adequacy of the standards of medical education including staff, equipment, accommodation, training and other facilities prescribed for giving medical education or on the sufficiency of every examination which they attend.
4. The report of a visitor shall be treated as confidential unless in any particular case the President of the Council otherwise directs:
Provided that if the Central Government requires a copy of the report of a visitor, the Council shall furnish the same.
19. WITHDRAWAL OF RECOGNITION
When upon report by the Committee or the visitor it appear to the Council:-
1. that the courses of study and examination to be undergone in, or the proficiency required from candidates at any examination held by any University or medical institution,
2. that the staff, equipment accommodation, training and other facilities for instruction and training provided in such University or medical institution or in any College or other institution affiliated to that University, do not conform to the standards prescribed by the Council, the Council shall make a representation to that effect to the Central Government.
2. After considering such representation, the Central Govt. may send it to the State Government of the State in which the University or medical Institution is situated and the State Government shall forward it along with such remarks as it may choose to make to the University or Medical Institution, with an intimation of the period within which the University or medical institution may submit its explanation to the State Government.
3. On the receipt of the explanation or, where no explanation is submitted within the period fixed, then on the expiry of that period, the State Government shall make its recommendations to the Central Government
4. The Central Government, after making such further inquiry, if any, as it may think fit, may by notification in the official Gazette, direct that an entry shall be made in the appropriate Schedule against the said medical qualification declaring that it shall be a recognised medical qualification, only when granted before a specified date or that the said medical qualification if granted to students of a specified College or institution affiliated to any university shall be a recognised medical qualification only when granted before a specified date or, as the case may be, that the said medical qualification shall be a recognised medical qualification in relation to a specified College or institution affiliated to any University only when granted after a specified date.
19A. MINIMUM STANDARDS OF MEDICAL EDUCATION
1. The Council may prescribe the minimum standards of medical education required for granting recognised medical qualifications ( other than postgraduate medical qualifications ) by universities or medical institutions in India.
2. Copies of the draft regulations and of all subsequent amendments thereof shall be furnished by the Council to all State Governments and the Council shall before submitting the regulations or any amendment thereof, as the case may be, to the Central Government for sanction, take into consideration the comments of any State Government received within three months from the furnishing of the copies as aforesaid.
3. The Committee shall from time to time report to the Council on the efficacy of the regulations and may recommend to the Council such amendments thereof as it may think fit.
20. POST-GRADUATE MEDICAL EDUCATION COMMITTEE FOR ASSISTING Council IN MATTERS RELATING TO POST-GRADUATE MEDICAL EDUCATION
1. The Council may prescribe standards of Postgraduate Medical Education for the guidance of Universities, and may advise Universities in the matter of securing uniform standards for Postgraduate Medical Education through out India, and for this purpose the Central Govt. may constitute from among the members of the Council a Postgraduate Medical Education Committee (hereinafter referred to as the Post-graduate Committee)
2. The Postgraduate Committee shall consist of nine members all of whom shall be persons possessing postgraduate medical qualifications and experience of teaching or examining postgraduate students of medicine.
3. Six of the members of the Postgraduate Committee shall be nominated by the Central Government and the remaining three members shall be elected by the Council from amongst its members.
4. For the purpose of considering postgraduate studies in a subject, the Postgraduate Committee may co-opt, as and when necessary, one or more members qualified to assist it in that subject.
5. The views and recommendations of the Postgraduate Committee on all matters shall be placed before the Council and if the Council does not agree with the views expressed or the recommendations made by the Postgraduate Committee on any matter, the Council shall forward them together with its observations to the Central Government for decision.
20A. PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT
1. The Council may prescribe standards of professional conduct and etiquette and a code of ethics for medical practitioners.
2. Regulations made by the Council under sub-section (1) may specify which violations thereof shall constitute infamous conduct in any professional respect, that is to say, professional misconduct, and such provisions shall have effect notwithstanding anything contained in any law for the time being in force.
21. INDIAN MEDICAL REGISTER
1. The Council shall cause to be maintained in the prescribed manner a register of medical practitioners to be known as the Indian Medical Register, which shall contain the names of all persons who are for the time being enrolled on any State Medical Register and who possess any of the recognised medical qualifications.
2. It shall be the duty of the Registrar of the Council to keep the Indian Medical Register in accordance with the provisions of this Act and of any orders made by the Council, and from time to time to revise the register and publish it in the Gazette of India and in such other manner as may be prescribed.
3. Such register shall be deemed to be public document within the meaning of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 and may be proved by a copy published in the Gazette of India.
22. SUPPLY OF COPIES OF THE STATE MEDICAL REGISTERS
Each State Medical Council shall supply to the Council six printed copies of the State Medical Register as soon as may be after the commencement of this Act and subsequently after the first day of April of each year, and each Registrar of a State Medical Council shall inform the Council without delay of all additions to and other amendments in the State Medical Register made from time to time.
23. REGISTRATION IN THE INDIAN MEDICAL REGISTER
The Registrar of the Council, may, on receipt of the report of registration of a person in a State Medical Register or on application made in the prescribed manner by any such person, enter his name in the Indian Medical Register, Provided that the Registrar is satisfied that the person concerned possesses a recognised medical qualification.
24. REMOVAL OF NAMES FROM THE INDIAN MEDICAL REGISTER
1. If the name of any person enrolled on a State Medical Register is removed there from in pursuance of any power conferred by or under any law relating to medical practitioners for the time being in force in any State, the Council shall direct the removal of the name of such person from the Indian Medical Register.
2. Where the name of any person has been removed from a State Medical Register on the ground of professional misconduct or any other ground except that he is not possessed of the requisite medical qualifications or where any application made by the said person for restoration of his name to the State Medical Register has been rejected, he may appeal in the prescribed manner and subject to such conditions including conditions as to the payment of a fee as may be laid down in rules made by the Central Government in this behalf, to the Central Government, whose decision, which shall be given after consulting the Council, shall be binding on the State Government and on the authorities concerned with the preparation of the State Medical Register.
25. PROVISIONAL REGISTRATION
1. A citizen of India possessing a medical qualification granted by a medical institution outside India included in part II of the Third Schedule, who is required to undergo practical training as prescribed under sub section (3) of Section 13, shall, on production of proper evidence that he has been selected for such practical training in an approved institution be entitled to be registered provisionally in a State Medical Register and shall be entitled to practice medicine in the approved institution for the purposes of such training and for no other purpose.
2. A person who has passed the qualifying examination of any university or Medical Institution in India for the grant of a recognized medical qualification shall be entitled to be registered provisionally in a State Medical Register for the purpose of enabling him to be engaged in employment in a resident medical capacity in any approved institution, or in the Medical Service of the Armed Forces of the Union, and for no other purpose, on production of proper evidence that he has been selected for such employment.
3. The names of all persons provisionally registered under sub-section (1) or sub-section (2) in the State Medical Register shall be entered therein separately from the names of other persons registered therein.
4. A person registered provisionally as aforesaid who has completed practical training referred to in sub section (1) or who has been engaged for the prescribed period in employment in a resident medical capacity in any approved institution or in the Medical service of the Armed Forces of the Union, as the case may be, shall be entitled to registration in the State Medical Register under Section 15.
26. REGISTRATION OF ADDITIONAL QUALIFICATIONS
1. If any person whose name is entered in the Indian Medical Register obtains any title, diploma or other qualification for proficiency in sanitary science, public health or medicine which is a recognized medical qualification, he shall, on application made in this behalf in the prescribed manner be entitled to have any entry stating such other title, diploma or other qualification made against his name in the Indian Medical Register either in substitution for or in addition to any entry previously made.
2. The entries in respect of any such person in a State Medical Register shall be altered in accordance with the alterations made in the Indian Medical Register.
27. PRIVILEGES OF PERSONS WHO ARE ENROLLED ON THE INDIAN MEDICAL REGISTER
Subject to the conditions and restrictions laid down in this Act, regarding medical practice by persons possessing certain recognised medical qualifications, every person whose name is for the time being borne on the Indian Medical Register shall be entitled according to his qualifications to practice as a medical practitioner in any part of India and to recover in due course of law in respect of such practice any expenses, charges in respect of medicaments or other appliances, or any fees to which he may be entitled.
28. PERSONS ENROLLED ON THE INDIAN MEDICAL REGISTER TO NOTIFY CHANGE OF PLACE OF RESIDENCE OR PRACTICE
Every person registered in the Indian Medical Register shall notify any transfer of the place of his residence or practice to the Council and to the State Medical Council concerned, within thirty days of such transfer failing which his right to participate in the election of members to the Council or a State Medical Council shall be liable to be forfeited by order of the Central Government either permanently or for such period as may be specified therein.
29. INFORMATION TO BE FURNISHED BY THE Council AND PUBLICATION THEREOF
1. The Council shall furnish such reports, copies of its minutes, abstracts of its accounts, and other information to the Central Government as that Government may require.
2. The Central Government may publish in such manner as it may think fit, any report, copy, abstract or other information furnished to it under this section or under sections 17 and 18.
30. COMMISSION OF INQUIRY
1. Whenever it is made to appear to the Central Government that the Council is not complying with any of the provisions of this Act, the Central Government may refer the particulars of the complaint to a Commission of Inquiry consisting of three persons two of whom shall be appointed by the Central Government, one being a Judge of a High Court and one by the Council, and such Commission shall proceed to inquire in a summary manner and to report to the Central Government as to the truth of the matters charged in the complaint, and in case of any charge of default or of improper action being found by the commission to have been established, the Commission shall recommend the remedies, if any, which are in its opinion necessary.
2. The Central Government may require the Council to adopt the remedies so recommended within such time as, having regard to the report of the Commission, it may think fit, and if the Council fails to comply with any such requirement, the Central Government may amend the regulations of the Council, or make such provision or order or take such other steps as may seem necessary to give effect to the recommendations of the Commission.
3. A Commission of inquiry shall have power to administer oaths, to enforce the attendance of witnesses and the production of documents, and shall have all such other necessary powers for the purpose of any inquiry conducted by it as are exercised by a Civil Court under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908.
31. PROTECTION OF ACTION TAKEN IN GOOD FAITH
No suit, prosecution or other legal proceeding shall lie against the Government, the Council or a State Medical Council or any Committee thereof, or any Officer or servant of the Government or Councils aforesaid for anything which is in good faith done or intended to be done under this Act.
32. POWER TO MAKE RULES
1. The Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, make rules to carry out the purposes of this Act.
2. All rules made under this section shall be laid for not less than thirty days before both Houses of Parliament as soon as possible after they are made, and shall be subject to such modifications as Parliament may make during the session in which they are so laid or the session immediately following.
33. POWER TO MAKE REGULATIONS
The Council may, with the previous sanction of the Central Government, make regulations generally to carry out the purposes of this Act, and without prejudice to the generality of this power, such regulations may provide for:-
1. the management of the property of the Council and the maintenance and audit of its accounts;
2. the summoning and holding of meetings of the Council, the times and places where such meetings are to be held, the conduct of business thereat and the number of members necessary to constitute a quorum;
3. the resignation of members of the Council;
4. the powers and duties of the President and Vice-President
5. the mode of appointment of the Executive Committee and other Committees, the summoning and holding of meetings and the conduct of business of such Committees;
6. the tenure office, and the powers and duties of the Registrar and other officers and servants of the Council; (fa) the form of the scheme, the particulars to be given in such scheme, the manner in which the scheme is to be preferred and the fee payable with the scheme under clause (b) of sub-section (2) of section 10A; (fb) any other factors under clause (g) of sub-section (7) of section 10A; (fc) the criteria for identifying a student who has been granted a medical qualification referred to in the Explanation to sub-section (3) of section 10B;
7. the particulars to be stated, and the proof of qualifications to be given in applications for registration under this Act;
8. the fees to be paid on applications and appeals under this Act;
9. the appointment, powers, duties and procedure of medical inspectors and visitors;
10. the courses and period of study and of practical training to be undertaken, the subjects of examination and the standards of proficiency therein to be obtained, in Universities or medical institutions for grant of recognized medical qualifications;
11. the standards of staff, equipment, accommodation, training and other facilities for medical education;
12. the conduct of professional examination; qualifications of examiners and the conditions of admissions to such examinations;
13. the standards of professional conduct and etiquette and code of ethics to be observed by medical practitioners; and (m a) the modalities for conducting screening tests under sub-section (4A), and under the proviso to sub-section (4B), and for issuing eligibility certificate under sub-section (4B), of section 13,.
14. any matter for which under this Act provision may be made by regulations.
34. REPEAL OF ACT 27 OF 1933
1. The Indian Medical Council Act, 1933 is hereby repealed.
Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, until the Council is constituted in accordance with the provisions of this Act:-
1. the Medical Council of India as constituted immediately before the commencement of this Act under the Indian Medical Council Act, 1933, with the addition of seven members nominated thereto by the Central Government from among persons enrolled on any of the State Medical Registers who possess the medical qualifications included in Part I of the 3rd Schedule to this Act (hereinafter referred to as the said Medical Council) shall be deemed to be the Council constituted under this Act and may exercise any of the powers conferred or perform any of the duties imposed on the Council; and any vacancy occurring in the said Medical Council may be filled up in such manner as Central Govt. may think fit; and
2. the Executive Committee and other Committees of the said Medical Council as constituted immediately before the commencement of this Act, shall be deemed to be the Executive Committee and the Committees constituted under this Act.
(Published in Part III, Section 4 of the Gazette of India, Dated 6th April,2002)
MEDICAL COUNCIL OF INDIA
New Delhi, dated 11th March, 2002
No. MCI-211(2)/2001/Registration. In exercise of the powers conferred under section 20A read with section 33(m) of the Indian Medical Council Act, 1956 (102 of 1956), the Medical Council of India, with the previous approval of the Central Government, hereby makes the following regulations relating to the Professional Conduct, Etiquette and Ethics for registered medical practitioners, namely:-
Short Title and Commencement:
1. These Regulations may be called the Indian Medical Council (Professional conduct, Etiquette and Ethics) Regulations, 2002.
2. They shall come into force on the date of their publication in the Official Gazette.
1. CODE OF MEDICAL ETHICS
Each applicant, at the time of making an application for registration under the provisions of the Act, shall be provided a copy of the declaration and shall submit a duly signed Declaration as provided in Appendix 1. The applicant shall also certify that he/she had read and agreed to abide by the same.
B. Duties and responsibilities of the Physician in general:
1.1 Character of Physician (Doctors with qualification of MBBS or MBBS with post graduate degree/ diploma or with equivalent qualification in any medical discipline):
1.1.1 A physician shall uphold the dignity and honour of his profession.
1.1.2 The prime object of the medical profession is to render service to humanity; reward or financial gain is a subordinate consideration. Who- so-ever chooses his profession, assumes the obligation to conduct himself in accordance with its ideals. A physician should be an upright man, instructed in the art of healings. He shall keep himself pure in character and be diligent in caring for the sick; he should be modest, sober, patient, prompt in discharging his duty without anxiety; conducting himself with propriety in his profession and in all the actions of his life.
1.1.3 No person other than a doctor having qualification recognised by Medical Council of India and registered with Medical Council of India/State Medical Council (s) is allowed to practice Modern system of Medicine or Surgery. A person obtaining qualification in any other system of Medicine is not allowed to practice Modern system of Medicine in any form.
1.2 Maintaining good medical practice:
1.2.1 The Principal objective of the medical profession is to render service to humanity with full respect for the dignity of profession and man. Physicians should merit the confidence of patients entrusted to their care, rendering to each a full measure of service and devotion. Physicians should try continuously to improve medical knowledge and skills and should make available to their patients and colleagues the benefits of their professional attainments. The physician should practice methods of healing founded on scientific basis and should not associate professionally with anyone who violates this principle. The honoured ideals of the medical profession imply that the responsibilities of the physician extend not only to individuals but also to society.
1.2.2 Membership in Medical Society: For the advancement of his profession, a physician should affiliate with associations and societies of allopathic medical professions and involve actively in the functioning of such bodies.
1.2.3 A Physician should participate in professional meetings as part of Continuing Medical Education programmes, for at least 30 hours every five years, organized by reputed professional academic bodies or any other authorized organisations. The compliance of this requirement shall be informed regularly to Medical Council of India or the State Medical Councils as the case may be.
1.3 Maintenance of medical records:
1.3.1 Every physician shall maintain the medical records pertaining to his / her indoor patients for a period of 3 years from the date of commencement of the treatment in a standard proforma laid down by the Medical Council of India and attached as Appendix 3.
1.3.2. If any request is made for medical records either by the patients / authorised attendant or legal authorities involved, the same may be duly acknowledged and documents shall be issued within the period of 72 hours.
1.3.3 A Registered medical practitioner shall maintain a Register of Medical Certificates giving full details of certificates issued. When issuing a medical certificate he / she shall always enter the identification marks of the patient and keep a copy of the certificate. He / She shall not omit to record the signature and/or thumb mark, address and at least one identification mark of the patient on the medical certificates or report. The medical certificate shall be prepared as in Appendix 2.
1.3.4 Efforts shall be made to computerize medical records for quick retrieval.
1.4 Display of registration numbers:
1.4.1 Every physician shall display the registration number accorded to him by the State Medical Council / Medical Council of India in his clinic and in all his prescriptions, certificates, money receipts given to his patients.
1.4.2 Physicians shall display as suffix to their names only recognized medical degrees or such certificates/diplomas and memberships/honours which confer professional knowledge or recognizes any exemplary qualification/achievements.
1.5 Use of Generic names of drugs: Every physician should, as far as possible, prescribe drugs with generic names and he / she shall ensure that there is a rational prescription and use of drugs.
1.6 Highest Quality Assurance in patient care: Every physician should aid in safeguarding the profession against admission to it of those who are deficient in moral character or education. Physician shall not employ in connection with his professional practice any attendant who is neither registered nor enlisted under the Medical Acts in force and shall not permit such persons to attend, treat or perform operations upon patients wherever professional discretion or skill is required.
1.7 Exposure of Unethical Conduct: A Physician should expose, without fear or favour, incompetent or corrupt, dishonest or unethical conduct on the part of members of the profession.
1.8 Payment of Professional Services: The physician, engaged in the practice of medicine shall give priority to the interests of patients. The personal financial interests of a physician should not conflict with the medical interests of patients. A physician should announce his fees before rendering service and not after the operation or treatment is under way. Remuneration received for such services should be in the form and amount specifically announced to the patient at the time the service is rendered. It is unethical to enter into a contract of “no cure no payment”. Physician rendering service on behalf of the state shall refrain from anticipating or accepting any consideration.
1.9 Evasion of Legal Restrictions: The physician shall observe the laws of the country in regulating the practice of medicine and shall also not assist others to evade such laws. He should be cooperative in observance and enforcement of sanitary laws and regulations in the interest of public health. A physician should observe the provisions of the State Acts like Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940; Pharmacy Act, 1948; Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic substances Act, 1985; Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971; Transplantation of Human Organ Act, 1994; Mental Health Act, 1987; Environmental Protection Act, 1986; Pre–natal Sex Determination Test Act, 1994; Drugs and Magic Remedies (Objectionable Advertisement) Act, 1954; Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities and Full Participation) Act, 1995 and Bio-Medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998 and such other Acts, Rules, Regulations made by the Central/State Governments or local Administrative Bodies or any other relevant Act relating to the protection and promotion of public health.
2. DUTIES OF PHYSICIANS TO THEIR PATIENTS
2.1 Obligations to the Sick
2.1.1 Though a physician is not bound to treat each and every person asking his services, he should not only be ever ready to respond to the calls of the sick and the injured, but should be mindful of the high character of his mission and the responsibility he discharges in the course of his professional duties. In his treatment, he should never forget that the health and the lives of those entrusted to his care depend on his skill and attention. A physician should endeavour to add to the comfort of the sick by making his visits at the hour indicated to the patients. A physician advising a patient to seek service of another physician is acceptable, however, in case of emergency a physician must treat the patient. No physician shall arbitrarily refuse treatment to a patient. However for good reason, when a patient is suffering from an ailment which is not within the range of experience of the treating physician, the physician may refuse treatment and refer the patient to another physician.
2.1.2 Medical practitioner having any incapacity detrimental to the patient or which can affect his performance vis-à-vis the patient is not permitted to practice his profession
2.2 Patience, Delicacy and Secrecy : Patience and delicacy should characterize the physician. Confidences concerning individual or domestic life entrusted by patients to a physician and defects in the disposition or character of patients observed during medical attendance should never be revealed unless their revelation is required by the laws of the State. Sometimes, however, a physician must determine whether his duty to society requires him to employ knowledge, obtained through confidence as a physician, to protect a healthy person against a communicable disease to which he is about to be exposed. In such instance, the physician should act as he would wish another to act toward one of his own family in like circumstances.
2.3 Prognosis: The physician should neither exaggerate nor minimize the gravity of a patient’s condition. He should ensure himself that the patient, his relatives or his responsible friends have such knowledge of the patient’s condition as will serve the best interests of the patient and the family.
2.4 The Patient must not be neglected: A physician is free to choose whom he will serve. He should, however, respond to any request for his assistance in an emergency. Once having undertaken a case, the physician should not neglect the patient, nor should he withdraw from the case without giving adequate notice to the patient and his family. Provisionally or fully registered medical practitioner shall not willfully commit an act of negligence that may deprive his patient or patients from necessary medical care.
2.5 Engagement for an Obstetric case: When a physician who has been engaged to attend an obstetric case is absent and another is sent for and delivery accomplished, the acting physician is entitled to his professional fees, but should secure the patient’s consent to resign on the arrival of the physician engaged.
3. DUTIES OF PHYSICIAN IN CONSULTATION
3.1 Unnecessary consultations should be avoided:
3.1.1 However in case of serious illness and in doubtful or difficult conditions, the physician should request consultation, but under any circumstances such consultation should be justifiable and in the interest of the patient only and not for any other consideration.
3.1.2 Consulting pathologists /radiologists or asking for any other diagnostic Lab investigation should be done judiciously and not in a routine manner.
3.2 Consultation for Patient’s Benefit: In every consultation, the benefit to the patient is of foremost importance. All physicians engaged in the case should be frank with the patient and his attendants.
3.3 Punctuality in Consultation: Utmost punctuality should be observed by a physician in making themselves available for consultations.
3.4 Statement to Patient after Consultation:
3.4.1 All statements to the patient or his representatives should take place in the presence of the consulting physicians, except as otherwise agreed. The disclosure of the opinion to the patient or his relatives or friends shall rest with the medical attendant.
3.4.2 Differences of opinion should not be divulged unnecessarily but when there is irreconcilable difference of opinion the circumstances should be frankly and impartially explained to the patient or his relatives or friends. It would be opened to them to seek further advice as they so desire.
3.5 Treatment after Consultation: No decision should restrain the attending physician from making such subsequent variations in the treatment if any unexpected change occurs, but at the next consultation, reasons for the variations should be discussed/explained. The same privilege, with its obligations, belongs to the consultant when sent for in an emergency during the absence of attending physician. The attending physician may prescribe medicine at any time for the patient, whereas the consultant may prescribe only in case of emergency or as an expert when called for.
3.6 Patients Referred to Specialists: When a patient is referred to a specialist by the attending physician, a case summary of the patient should be given to the specialist, who should communicate his opinion in writing to the attending physician.
3.7 Fees and other charges:
3.7.1 A physician shall clearly display his fees and other charges on the board of his chamber and/or the hospitals he is visiting. Prescription should also make clear if the Physician himself dispensed any medicine.
3.7.2 A physician shall write his name and designation in full along with registration particulars in his prescription letter head.
Note: In Government hospital where the patient–load is heavy, the name of the prescribing doctor must be written below his/her signature.
4. RESPONSIBILITIES OF PHYSICIANS TO EACH OTHER
A physician should consider it as a pleasure and privilege to render gratuitous service to all physicians and their immediate family dependants.
4.2 Conduct in consultation : In consultations, no insincerity, rivalry or envy should be indulged in. All due respect should be observed towards the physician in-charge of the case and no statement or remark be made, which would impair the confidence reposed in him. For this purpose no discussion should be carried on in the presence of the patient or his representatives.
4.3 Consultant not to take charge of the case: When a physician has been called for consultation, the Consultant should normally not take charge of the case, especially on the solicitation of the patient or friends. The Consultant shall not criticize the referring physician. He / she shall discuss the diagnosis treatment plan with the referring physician.
4.4 Appointment of Substitute: Whenever a physician requests another physician to attend his patients during his temporary absence from his practice, professional courtesy requires the acceptance of such appointment only when he has the capacity to discharge the additional responsibility along with his / her other duties. The physician acting under such an appointment should give the utmost consideration to the interests and reputation of the absent physician and all such patients should be restored to the care of the latter upon his/her return.
4.5 Visiting another Physician’s Case: When it becomes the duty of a physician occupying an official position to see and report upon an illness or injury, he should communicate to the physician in attendance so as to give him an option of being present. The medical officer / physician occupying an official position should avoid remarks upon the diagnosis or the treatment that has been adopted.
5 DUTIES OF PHYSICIAN TO THE PUBLIC AND TO THE PARAMEDICAL PROFESSION
5.1 Physicians as Citizens: Physicians, as good citizens, possessed of special training should disseminate advice on public health issues. They should play their part in enforcing the laws of the community and in sustaining the institutions that advance the interests of humanity. They should particularly co-operate with the authorities in the administration of sanitary/public health laws and regulations.
5.2 Public and Community Health: Physicians, especially those engaged in public health work, should enlighten the public concerning quarantine regulations and measures for the prevention of epidemic and communicable diseases. At all times the physician should notify the constituted public health authorities of every case of communicable disease under his care, in accordance with the laws, rules and regulations of the health authorities. When an epidemic occurs a physician should not abandon his duty for fear of contracting the disease himself.
5.3 Pharmacists / Nurses: Physicians should recognize and promote the practice of different paramedical services such as, pharmacy and nursing as professions and should seek their cooperation wherever required.
6. UNETHICAL ACTS :
A physician shall not aid or abet or commit any of the following acts which shall be construed as unethical -
6.1.1 Soliciting of patients directly or indirectly, by a physician, by a group of physicians or by institutions or organisations is unethical. A physician shall not make use of him / her (or his / her name) as subject of any form or manner of advertising or publicity through any mode either alone or in conjunction with others which is of such a character as to invite attention to him or to his professional position, skill, qualification, achievements, attainments, specialities, appointments, associations, affiliations or honours and/or of such character as would ordinarily result in his self aggrandizement. A physician shall not give to any person, whether for compensation or otherwise, any approval, recommendation, endorsement, certificate, report or statement with respect of any drug, medicine, nostrum remedy, surgical, or therapeutic article, apparatus or appliance or any commercial product or article with respect of any property, quality or use thereof or any test, demonstration or trial thereof, for use in connection with his name, signature, or photograph in any form or manner of advertising through any mode nor shall he boast of cases, operations, cures or remedies or permit the publication of report thereof through any mode. A medical practitioner is however permitted to make a formal announcement in press regarding the following:
1. On starting practice.
2. On change of type of practice.
3. On changing address.
4. On temporary absence from duty.
5. On resumption of another practice.
6. On succeeding to another practice.
7. Public declaration of charges.
6.1.2 Printing of self photograph, or any such material of publicity in the letter head or on sign board of the consulting room or any such clinical establishment shall be regarded as acts of self advertisement and unethical conduct on the part of the physician. However, printing of sketches, diagrams, picture of human system shall not be treated as unethical.
6.2 Patent and Copy rights: A physician may patent surgical instruments, appliances and medicine or Copyright applications, methods and procedures. However, it shall be unethical if the benefits of such patents or copyrights are not made available in situations where the interest of large population is involved.
6.3 Running an open shop (Dispensing of Drugs and Appliances by Physicians): – A physician should not run an open shop for sale of medicine for dispensing prescriptions prescribed by doctors other than himself or for sale of medical or surgical appliances. It is not unethical for a physician to prescribe or supply drugs, remedies or appliances as long as there is no exploitation of the patient. Drugs prescribed by a physician or brought from the market for a patient should explicitly state the proprietary formulae as well as generic name of the drug.
6.4 Rebates and Commission:
6.4.1 A physician shall not give, solicit, or receive nor shall he offer to give solicit or receive, any gift, gratuity, commission or bonus in consideration of or return for the referring, recommending or procuring of any patient for medical, surgical or other treatment. A physician shall not directly or indirectly, participate in or be a party to act of division, transference, assignment, subordination, rebating, splitting or refunding of any fee for medical, surgical or other treatment.
6.4.2 Provisions of para 6.4.1 shall apply with equal force to the referring, recommending or procuring by a physician or any person, specimen or material for diagnostic purposes or other study / work. Nothing in this section, however, shall prohibit payment of salaries by a qualified physician to other duly qualified person rendering medical care under his supervision.
6.5 Secret Remedies: The prescribing or dispensing by a physician of secret remedial agents of which he does not know the composition, or the manufacture or promotion of their use is unethical and as such prohibited. All the drugs prescribed by a physician should always carry a proprietary formula and clear name.
6.6 Human Rights: The physician shall not aid or abet torture nor shall he be a party to either infliction of mental or physical trauma or concealment of torture inflicted by some other person or agency in clear violation of human rights.
6.7 Euthanasia: Practicing euthanasia shall constitute unethical conduct. However on specific occasion, the question of withdrawing supporting devices to sustain cardio-pulmonary function even after brain death, shall be decided only by a team of doctors and not merely by the treating physician alone. A team of doctors shall declare withdrawal of support system. Such team shall consist of the doctor in charge of the patient, Chief Medical Officer / Medical Officer in charge of the hospital and a doctor nominated by the in-charge of the hospital from the hospital staff or in accordance with the provisions of the Transplantation of Human Organ Act, 1994.
7. MISCONDUCT :
The following acts of commission or omission on the part of a physician shall constitute professional misconduct rendering him/her liable for disciplinary action
7.1 Violation of the Regulations: If he/she commits any violation of these Regulations.
7.2 If he/she does not maintain the medical records of his/her indoor patients for a period of three years as per regulation 1.3 and refuses to provide the same within 72 hours when the patient or his/her authorised representative makes a request for it as per the regulation 1.3.2.
7.3 If he/she does not display the registration number accorded to him/her by the State Medical Council or the Medical Council of India in his clinic, prescriptions and certificates etc. issued by him or violates the provisions of regulation 1.4.2.
7.4 Adultery or Improper Conduct: Abuse of professional position by committing adultery or improper conduct with a patient or by maintaining an improper association with a patient will render a Physician liable for disciplinary action as provided under the Indian Medical Council Act, 1956 or the concerned State Medical Council Act.
7.5 Conviction by Court of Law: Conviction by a Court of Law for offences involving moral turpitude / Criminal acts.
7.6 Sex Determination Tests: On no account sex determination test shall be undertaken with the intent to terminate the life of a female foetus developing in her mother’s womb, unless there are other absolute indications for termination of pregnancy as specified in the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971. Any act of termination of pregnancy of normal female foetus amounting to female foeticide shall be regarded as professional misconduct on the part of the physician leading to penal erasure besides rendering him liable to criminal proceedings as per the provisions of this Act.
7.7 Signing Professional Certificates, Reports and other Documents: Registered medical practitioners are in certain cases bound by law to give, or may from time to time be called upon or requested to give certificates, notification, reports and other documents of similar character signed by them in their professional capacity for subsequent use in the courts or for administrative purposes etc. Such documents, among others, include the ones given at Appendix –4. Any registered practitioner who is shown to have signed or given under his name and authority any such certificate, notification, report or document of a similar character which is untrue, misleading or improper, is liable to have his name deleted from the Register.
7.8 A registered medical practitioner shall not contravene the provisions of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act and regulations made there under. Accordingly,
1. Prescribing steroids/ psychotropic drugs when there is no absolute medical indication;
2. selling Schedule ‘H’ & ‘L’ drugs and poisons to the public except to his patient;
in contravention of the above provisions shall constitute gross professional misconduct on the part of the physician.
7.9 Performing or enabling unqualified person to perform an abortion or any illegal operation for which there is no medical, surgical or psychological indication.
7.10 A registered medical practitioner shall not issue certificates of efficiency in modern medicine to unqualified or non-medical person.
(Note: The foregoing does not restrict the proper training and instruction of bonafide students, midwives, dispensers, surgical attendants, or skilled mechanical and technical assistants and therapy assistants under the personal supervision of physicians.)
7.11 A physician should not contribute to the lay press articles and give interviews regarding diseases and treatments which may have the effect of advertising himself or soliciting practices; but is open to write to the lay press under his own name on matters of public health, hygienic living or to deliver public lectures, give talks on the radio/TV/internet chat for the same purpose and send announcement of the same to lay press.
7.12 An institution run by a physician for a particular purpose such as a maternity home, nursing home, private hospital, rehabilitation centre or any type of training institution etc. may be advertised in the lay press, but such advertisements should not contain anything more than the name of the institution, type of patients admitted, type of training and other facilities offered and the fees.
7.13 It is improper for a physician to use an unusually large sign board and write on it anything other than his name, qualifications obtained from a University or a statutory body, titles and name of his speciality, registration number including the name of the State Medical Council under which registered. The same should be the contents of his prescription papers. It is improper to affix a sign-board on a chemist’s shop or in places where he does not reside or work.
7.14 The registered medical practitioner shall not disclose the secrets of a patient that have been learnt in the exercise of his / her profession except –
1. in a court of law under orders of the Presiding Judge;
2. in circumstances where there is a serious and identified risk to a specific person and / or community; and
3. notifiable diseases.
In case of communicable / notifiable diseases, concerned public health authorities should be informed immediately.
7.15 The registered medical practitioner shall not refuse on religious grounds alone to give assistance in or conduct of sterility, birth control, circumcision and medical termination of Pregnancy when there is medical indication, unless the medical practitioner feels himself/herself incompetent to do so.
7.16 Before performing an operation the physician should obtain in writing the consent from the husband or wife, parent or guardian in the case of minor, or the patient himself as the case may be. In an operation which may result in sterility the consent of both husband and wife is needed.
7.17 A registered medical practitioner shall not publish photographs or case reports of his / her patients without their permission, in any medical or other journal in a manner by which their identity could be made out. If the identity is not to be disclosed, the consent is not needed.
7.18 In the case of running of a nursing home by a physician and employing assistants to help him / her, the ultimate responsibility rests on the physician.
7.19 A Physician shall not use touts or agents for procuring patients.
7.20 A Physician shall not claim to be specialist unless he has a special qualification in that branch.
7.21 No act of invitro fertilization or artificial insemination shall be undertaken without the informed consent of the female patient and her spouse as well as the donor. Such consent shall be obtained in writing only after the patient is provided, at her own level of comprehension, with sufficient information about the purpose, methods, risks, inconveniences, disappointments of the procedure and possible risks and hazards.
7.22 Research: Clinical drug trials or other research involving patients or volunteers as per the guidelines of ICMR can be undertaken, provided ethical considerations are borne in mind. Violation of existing ICMR guidelines in this regard shall constitute misconduct. Consent taken from the patient for trial of drug or therapy which is not as per the guidelines shall also be construed as misconduct.
7.23 If a physician posted in rural area is found absent on more than two occasions during inspection by the Head of the District Health Authority or the Chairman, Zila Parishad, the same shall be construed as a misconduct if it is recommended to the Medical Council of India/State Medical Council by the State Government for action under these Regulations.
7.24 If a physician posted in a medical College/institution both as teaching faculty or otherwise shall remain in hospital/College during the assigned duty hours. If they are found absent on more than two occasions during this period, the same shall be construed as a misconduct if it is certified by the Principal/Medical Superintendent and forwarded through the State Government to Medical Council of India/State Medical Council for action under these Regulations.
8. PUNISHMENT AND DISCIPLINARY ACTION
8.1 It must be clearly understood that the instances of offences and of Professional misconduct which are given above do not constitute and are not intended to constitute a complete list of the infamous acts which calls for disciplinary action, and that by issuing this notice the Medical Council of India and or State Medical Councils are in no way precluded from considering and dealing with any other form of professional misconduct on the part of a registered practitioner. Circumstances may and do arise from time to time in relation to which there may occur questions of professional misconduct which do not come within any of these categories. Every care should be taken that the code is not violated in letter or spirit. In such instances as in all others, the Medical Council of India and/or State Medical Councils have to consider and decide upon the facts brought before the Medical Council of India and/or State Medical Councils.
8.2 It is made clear that any complaint with regard to professional misconduct can be brought before the appropriate Medical Council for Disciplinary action. Upon receipt of any complaint of professional misconduct, the appropriate Medical Council would hold an enquiry and give opportunity to the registered medical practitioner to be heard in person or by pleader. If the medical practitioner is found to be guilty of committing professional misconduct, the appropriate Medical Council may award such punishment as deemed necessary or may direct the removal altogether or for a specified period, from the register of the name of the delinquent registered practitioner. Deletion from the Register shall be widely publicized in local press as well as in the publications of different Medical Associations/ Societies/Bodies.
8.3 In case the punishment of removal from the register is for a limited period, the appropriate Council may also direct that the name so removed shall be restored in the register after the expiry of the period for which the name was ordered to be removed.
8.4 Decision on complaint against delinquent physician shall be taken within a time limit of 6 months.
8.5 During the pendency of the complaint the appropriate Council may restrain the physician from performing the procedure or practice which is under scrutiny.
8.6 Professional incompetence shall be judged by peer group as per guidelines prescribed by Medical Council of India.
APPENDIX – 1
At the time of registration, each applicant shall be given a copy of the following declaration by the Registrar concerned and the applicant shall read and agree to abide by the same:
1. I solemnly pledge myself to consecrate my life to service of humanity.
2. Even under threat, I will not use my medical knowledge contrary to the laws of Humanity.
3. I will maintain the utmost respect for human life from the time of conception.
4. I will not permit considerations of religion, nationality, race, party politics or social standing to intervene between my duty and my patient.
5. I will practice my profession with conscience and dignity.
6. The health of my patient will be my first consideration.
7. I will respect the secrets which are confined in me.
8. I will give to my teachers the respect and gratitude which is their due.
9. I will maintain by all means in my power, the honour and noble traditions of medical profession.
10. I will treat my colleagues with all respect and dignity.
11. I shall abide by the code of medical ethics as enunciated in the Indian Medical Council (Professional Conduct, Etiquette and Ethics) Regulations 2002.
I make these promises solemnly, freely and upon my honour.
APPENDIX – 2
FORM OF CERTIFICATE RECOMMENDED
FOR LEAVE OR EXTENSION OR COMMUNICATION
OF LEAVE AND FOR FITNESS
Signature of patient
or thumb impression ___________________________________________
To be filled in by the applicant in the presence of the Government Medical Attendant, or Medical Practitioner.
I, Dr. _____________________________________ after careful examination of the case certify hereby that _______________ whose signature is given above is suffering from __________________ and I consider that a period of absence from duty of ____________________ with effect from __________________ is absolutely necessary for the restoration of his health.
I, Dr. ________________________ after careful examination of the case certify hereby that ______________________ on restoration of health is now fit to join service.
Place ___________________ Signature of Medical attendant.
Date ________________ Registration No. ___________________
(Medical Council of India / State Medical Council of …………..…. State)
Note:- The nature and probable duration of the illness should also be specified . This certificate must be accompanied by a brief resume of the case giving the nature of the illness, its symptoms, causes and duration.
FORMAT FOR MEDICAL RECORD
(see regulation 3.1)
Name of the patient :
Date of 1st visit :
Clinical note (summary) of the case:
Prov. : Diagnosis :
Investigations advised with reports:
Diagnosis after investigation:
Signature in full ………………………….
Name of Treating Physician
LIST OF CERTIFICATES, REPORTS, NOTIFICATIONS ETC. ISSUED BY DOCTORS FOR THE PURPOSES OF VARIOUS ACTS / ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS
1. Under the acts relating to birth, death or disposal of the dead.
2. Under the Acts relating to Lunacy and Mental Deficiency and under the Mental illness Act and the rules made thereunder.
3. Under the Vaccination Acts and the regulations made thereunder.
4. Under the Factory Acts and the regulations made thereunder.
5. Under the Education Acts.
6. Under the Public Health Acts and the orders made thereunder.
7. Under the Workmen’s Compensation Act and Persons with Disability Act.
8. Under the Acts and orders relating to the notification of infectious diseases.
9. Under the Employee’s State Insurance Act.
10. In connection with sick benefit insurance and friendly societies.
11. Under the Merchant Shipping Act.
12. For procuring / issuing of passports.
13. For excusing attendance in courts of Justice, in public services, in public offices or in ordinary employment.
14. In connection with Civil and Military matters.
15. In connection with matters under the control of Department of Pensions.
16. In connection with quarantine rules.
17. For procuring driving licence.
(DR. M. SACHDEVA)
MEDICAL Council OF INDIA
(Published in Part III, Section 4 of the Gazette of India, dated 22nd February, 2003)
MEDICAL Council OF INDIA
New Delhi, dated 2003
No.MCI-211(2)2002-Regn.- In exercise of the powers conferred under section 20A read with section 33(m) of the Indian Medical Council Act, 1956 (102 of 1956), the Medical Council of India, with the previous approval of the Central Government, hereby makes the following amendments to the Indian Medical Council (Professional Conduct, Etiquette and Ethics) Regulations, 2002, namely:-
Short Title and Commencement: (i) These Regulations may be called the Indian Medical Council (Professional conduct, Etiquette and Ethics) (Amendment) Regulations, 2003.
(ii) They shall come into force on the date of their publication in the Official Gazette.
(2) In the Indian Medical Council (Professional conduct, Etiquette and Ethics) Regulations, 2002, the regulations, 7.23 and 7.24 appearing under Chapter 7, shall be omitted.
(Published in Part III, Section 4 of the Gazette of India, Extraordinary dated 27th May, 2004)
MEDICAL Council OF INDIA
New Delhi, dated 11th March, 2002
No. MCI-211(2)/2004-(Ethical). – In exercise of the powers conferred under section 20A read with section 33(m) of the Indian Medical Council Act, 1956 (102 of 1956), the Medical Council of India, with the previous approval of the Central Government, hereby makes the following amendments to the Indian Medical Council (Professional conduct, Etiquette and Ethics) Regulations, 2002, namely:-
(1) Short Title and Commencement: (i) These Regulations may be called the Indian Medical Council (Professional conduct, Etiquette and Ethics) (Amendment) Regulations, 2004.
(2) In the Indian Medical Council (Professional conduct, Etiquette and Ethics) Regulations, 2002, after the regulation 8.6 appearing under Chapter 8, the following regulations, shall be added:
“8.7 Where either on a request or otherwise the Medical Council of India is informed that any complaint against a delinquent physician has not been decided by a State Medical Council within a period of six months from the date of receipt of complaint by it and further the MCI has reason to believe that there is no justified reason for not deciding the complaint within the said prescribed period, the Medical Council of India may-
(i) Impress upon the concerned State Medical Council to conclude and decide the complaint within a time bound schedule;
(ii) May decide to withdraw the said complaint pending with the concerned State Medical Council straightaway or after the expiry of the period which had been stipulated by the MCI in accordance with para(i) above, to itself and refer the same to the Ethical Committee of the Council for its expeditious disposal in a period of not more than six months from the receipt of the complaint in the office of the Medical Council of India.”
“8.8 Any person aggrieved by the decision of the State Medical Council on any complaint against a delinquent physician, shall have the right to file an appeal to the MCI within a period of 60 days from the date of receipt of the order passed by the said Medical Council:
Provided that the MCI may, if it is satisfied that the appellant was prevented by sufficient cause from presenting the appeal within the aforesaid period of 60 days, allow it to be presented within a further period of 60 days.
MCI Notice 14-08-2014
MCI Notice 31-07-2014